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NURBS

Mesh

In blender a Mesh can be a four sided plane a six sided cube or look like any object you see in real life. Its basically a 3D object whereas a light or camera is not a mesh.

Render / Rendering

Rendering is to output the 3D scene as an image or movie file.

Subdivision surface

Texture Map / Texture mapping

A 2D image or Photo used to cover a 3D object

Vertices

In blender Vertices can be seen when you have selected an object and then choose edit mode, they appear as little dots in all corners of a cube for example. A cube has 8 Vertices and more complex meshes can contain many thousands.